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What is Sangrand?
Sangrand means the first day of each month. Sangrand is not a natural phenomenon. There is no law of nature for fixing it. Man has divided the zodiac into 12 Rasis. It is the man who has defined that when the sun moves from one rasi to another it will be called ‘Sankranti’. Nowhere in Gurbani is the word “Sangrand” or the name of any of the twelve Rasis, on the basis of which Bikrami Sangrand (Sankranti) is determined, mentioned. Bikrami panchangs give the duration of time, close to Sangrand on the day of ‘Sankranti’ or on the next day if ‘Sankranti’ happens to occur during the night, which is considered auspicious for giving out alms. Gurmat does not believe in the Rasis and any time is auspicious or inauspicious.
In many countries outside India, particularly the UK, the USA, and Canada, the Sangat gathers in Gurdwaras on Sundays. Barahmaha is recited on the day of Sangrand as well as on the following Sunday. Is it deceitful to recite Barahmaha on Sundays when it is not the day of Sangrand? Then, do the hundreds of learned Gianis, management committees of Gurdwaras, and more than a million Sikh Sangat practice deceit?
Stars and planets do not make pakh, and month. It is the combination of the motions of the sun (actually of the earth around the sun) and moon which creates pakh and lunar month. It is the motion of the sun (actually of the earth around the sun) which creates solar month.
ਮਾਹਾ ਰੁਤੀ ਸਭ ਤੂੰ ਘੜੀ ਮੂਰਤ ਵੀਚਾਰਾ॥ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ, ਪੰਨਾ: 140
All thoughts of months, seasons, hours, and intervals held auspiciousSri Guru Granth Sahib – English Translation, Gurbachan Singh Talib, Vol I, p.286
In Thee are centred..
Through all the months and the seasons, the minutes and the hours, I will dwell upon You, O! Lord.Translation by Dr. Sant Singh
There is no calculation given in Gurbani. And also, the calculation according to which Bikrami calendar was and is worked out, existed at least more than a thousand years before the compilation of Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Guru Sahiban simply used and mentioned those units of day, tithi, ghari, pala, etc. which were prevalent in their time. How can a calendar’s calculation be said to have been based on Gurbani, when that calendar had been in vogue much before the advent of Guru Nanak Dev Sahib?
Comment on Seasons (Basant, Sawan, Bhadon)
According to the Indian system, there are six seasons in the year, of two months each. In Ruti Slok Bani the same six seasons are mentioned. Towards the beginning of Siddhantic astronomy, when the first point of the Indian zodiac and the first point of the Western zodiac coincided, the spring months were Chet and Vaisakh. Vaisakh started close to spring equinox in March, and Chet one month before that. Now the beginning of both these months has shifted by about 24 days, and Vaisakh has moved towards the Summer season by the same number of days. In another 500 years, the Summer season would begin with the commencement of Vaisakh. Then, according to the Bikrami calendar, after another 2100 years, Chet would move out of Basant season, and the Summer season would start with Chet. How would, then, one explain Gurbani lines:
ਚੜਿ ਚੇਤੁ ਬਸੰਤੁ ਮੇਰੇ ਪਿਆਰੇ ਭਲੀਅ ਰੁਤੇ ॥ ਅਘਘਸ਼ ਪ. 452
ਚੇਤੁ ਬਸੰਤੁ ਭਲਾ ਭਵਰ ਸੁਹਾਵੜੇ ॥ ਅਘਘਸ਼ ਪ. 1107
ਰੁਤਿ ਸਰਸ ਬਸੰਤ ਮਾਹ ਚੇਤੁ ਵੈਸਾਖ ਸੁਖ ਮਾਸੁ ਜੀਉ ॥ ਅਘਘਸ਼ ਪ.927
ਾਹਚਿਹ ਸਹੋਾ ਟਹੲ ੳਸਸੋਚੳਿਟੋਿਨ ੋਡ ਛਹੲਟ ੳਨਦ ੜੳਸਿੳਕਹ ਾਟਿਹ ਭੳਸੳਨਟ ਸੲੳਸੋਨ?
which show the association of Chet and Vaisakh with Basant season?
As mentioned above, Vaisakh would no longer be part of Basant season in another 500 years, according to the Bikrami calendar. In the Nanakshahi calendar the present relation of all the months with the seasons will stay as it is, forever.
The following lines from Gurbani mention the association of the rainy season with the months of Sawan and Bhadon:
ਰੁਤਿ ਬਰਸ ਸਹੇਲੀਆ ਸਾਵਣਿ ਭਾਦਵੈ ਆਨੰਦ ਜੀਉ ॥
ਮੋਰੀ ਰੁਣਝੁਣ ਲਾਇਆ ਭੈਣੇ ਸਾਵਣੁ ਆਇਆ ॥
ਸਾਵਣੁ ਆਇਆ ਹੇ ਸਖੀ ਜਲਹਰੁ ਬਰਸਨਹਾਰੁ ॥
This association will not be there in another 2100 years, by which time Sawan will have moved into August / September, and Bhadon into September / October, if the Bikrami calendar stays as it is.
The original seasons:
Chet, Vaisakh – Basant season
Jeth, Harh – Summer season
Sawan Bhadon – Rainy season
Assu, Katik – Autumn
Maghar, Poh – Hemant
Magh Phagun – Winter
The dates of the six seasons from Feb1469 CE to Feb 1470 CE (Bikrami 1525-26):
16 Phagun to 15 Vaisakh – Basant season
16 Vaisakh to 15 Harh – Summer season
16 Harh to 15 Bhadon – Rainy season
16 Bhadon to 14 Katik – Autumn
15 Katik to 14 Poh – Hemant
15 Poh to 14 Phagun – Winter
Because of the past shift, the seasons in 1999 CE (based on sayana sankrantis as given in Indian Ephemeris for 1999 CE, Astro-Research Bureau, Calcutta) are:
|8 Poh to 8 Phagun – Winter
|(22 Dec -19 Feb)
|9 Phagun to 7 Vaisakh – Basant season
|(20 Feb – 20 Apr)
|8 Vaisakh to 7 Harh – Summer season
|(21 Apr – 21 June)
|8 Harh to 6 Bhadon – Rainy season
|(22 June – 22 Aug)
|7 Bhadon to 6 Katik – Autumn
|(23 Aug – 22 Oct)
|7 Katik to 6 Poh – Hemant
|(23 Oct – 21 Dec)
According to the Bikrami calendar, in another 500 years Basant season would be from 1 Phagun to the end of Chet. And yet after another 2100 years the month of Chet would move out of Basant season and move into the summer season.
It must be noted here that the spring season mentioned above is according to the basis of the division of the year into six seasons as given in Gurbani, and not according to the division of the year into four seasons, as in the West.